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A. Purpose.

1. To employ architectural elements such as windows, balconies, entries, and similar features that create a complementary pattern or rhythm, dividing large buildings into smaller, identifiable pieces making them more relatable to the human scale.

2. To integrate substantial articulated/modulated features on large buildings to break up the massing and add visual interest.

B. Building Articulation – Nonresidential.

1. Nonresidential buildings and nonresidential portions of mixed-use buildings shall include articulation features to create a human-scaled pattern.

2. Primary building façades and other elevations that face parks or are adjacent to lower intensity zones shall incorporate at least three (3) articulation features listed in subsection (B)(3) of this section at intervals no greater than:

a. Thirty (30) feet; or

b. If facing Bonneville Avenue then the interval shall be no greater than sixty (60) feet.

c. The articulation interval length may be adjusted based on the interior configuration of the proposed building. Floor plans shall be submitted to justify wider articulation intervals.

3. Nonresidential building elevations shall incorporate at least three (3) of the following articulation features:

a. Window patterns and/or entries.

b. Weather protection features.

c. Vertical piers/columns.

d. Distinctive roof forms per subsection E of this section.

e. Change in building material or siding style.

f. Towers.

g. Other design techniques that effectively reinforce a pattern of small storefronts compatible with the building’s surrounding context. Such techniques shall consider the type and width of the proposed articulation treatment, the block frontage type, and the size and width of the building.

4. In addition to the above articulation features, the following features may also be used to meet articulation requirements for nonresidential, nonstorefront building elevations only:

a. Vertical elements such as a trellis with plants, green wall, or artwork.

b. Building modulation of at least twelve (12) inches, if tied to a change in roofline per subsection E of this section.

c. Other design techniques that effectively break up the massing of structures and add visual interest. Such techniques shall consider the type and width of the proposed articulation treatment, the block frontage type, and the size and width of the building.

Figure 1. Nonresidential articulation

The above image uses window patterns, weather protection elements, building modulation, and roofline modulation to articulate the primary building façade.

C. Building Articulation – Residential.

1. Residential buildings and residential portions of mixed-use buildings shall include articulation features at intervals of no greater than thirty (30) feet to break up the massing of the building and add visual interest and compatibility to the surrounding context. The articulation interval length may be adjusted based on the interior configuration of the proposed building. Floor plans shall be submitted to justify wider articulation intervals.

2. Primary building façades and other elevations that face parks, contain primary building entrances, or face lower intensity zones shall incorporate at least three (3) articulation features, as listed in subsection (C)(4) of this section, at each unit interval.

3. All other building elevations except firewalls shall incorporate at least two (2) articulation features, as listed in subsection (C)(4) of this section, at intervals no greater than thirty (30) feet, or at the interval determined pursuant to subsection (C)(1) of this section.

4. Articulation features:

a. Window patterns and/or entries.

b. Distinctive roof forms per subsection E of this section.

c. Change in building material or siding style.

d. Building modulation such as recesses and offsets of the building plane of at least twelve (12) inches if tied to a change in roofline modulation per subsection E of this section.

e. Balconies, if they are recessed or projected from the façade by at least eighteen (18) inches. Juliet balconies or other balconies that appear to be tacked on to the façade will not qualify for this option.

f. Vertical elements such as a trellis with plants, green wall, or art element.

g. Other design techniques that effectively break up the massing at no more than the maximum articulation intervals.

Figure 2. Residential articulation

Image A uses a combination of building modulation, window patterns, material changes, and roofline modulation. Image B is unacceptable.

D. Maximum Façade Width. All primary building façades and other building elevations facing parks, containing primary building entrances, or are adjacent to lower intensity zones wider than one hundred (100) feet, or wider than one hundred forty (140) feet if facing Bonneville Avenue, shall include at least one (1) of the following features to break up the massing of the building and add visual interest:

1. Modulation of vertical elements of the building plane, such as recesses and offsets, at least four (4) feet deep and fifteen (15) feet wide.

2. Modulation of horizontal elements that extend through all floors above the first floor facing the street, unless the upper floors are stepped back more than ten (10) feet from the façade. Such modulation shall:

a. Utilize a change in building materials that effectively contrasts with the rest of the façade.

b. Be stepped forward or backward from the rest of the façade by an average of six (6) inches.

c. Provide roofline modulation per subsection E of this section.

3. Contrasting building wall articulation that employs the following elements to give the impression of two (2) distinct buildings.

a. Different building materials and/or configuration of building materials.

b. Contrasting window design (sizes and/or configurations).

Figure 3. Maximum façade width

Acceptable: Building façade less than one hundred (100) feet wide.

Unacceptable: Building façade greater than one hundred (100) feet wide without modulation.

Acceptable: Building incorporating a recess along the façade per subsection (D)(1) of this section, to effectively break the building up into smaller components.

Figure 4. Façade width examples

Image A: The central portion of the building employs substantial modulation (from adjacent building elevation segments), a mix of façade materials, distinctive rooflines and window fenestration techniques to effectively break up the building massing. Image B: The building employs distinct façades to lend the appearance that it is several different buildings.

Images C and D: The buildings feature a combination of modest modulation, roofline modulation, and window fenestration techniques, but lack the techniques to visually break up the expansive and repetitious façade lengths.

E. Roofline Modulation. In order to qualify as a façade articulation pursuant to subsections B, C and D of this section, rooflines shall employ one (1) or more of the following:

1. Flat roofs or façades with a horizontal eave, fascia, or parapet that are modulated at varied heights with a difference of at least two (2) feet, when combined with building modulation techniques described in subsection D of this section. Otherwise, the minimum dimension of roofline modulation shall be four (4) feet.

2. A pitched or gabled roofline segment of at least twenty (20) feet in width, meeting the minimum pitch of subsection F of this section and featuring modulated roofline components at the intervals described in subsections B and C of this section.

3. A combination of the above.

Figure 5. Roofline modulation examples

Roofline modulation qualifies as an articulation feature when combined with building modulation techniques.

Image A: pitched roof example. Image B: flat roof example.

F. Roofline Pitch.

1. Buildings four (4) stories or shorter may have a flat or a pitched roof. If a pitched roof, the minimum slope shall be at least four to twelve (4:12) and shall feature modulated roofline components at the interval required by subsections B and C of this section.

2. Flat roofs are required for any new building five (5) stories and taller. (Ord. 2425, 2022)